Programming Languages: Definition, Functions, Types, and 15+ Examples!

Programming Languages

Programming languages ​​are the main weapon for building various types of systems that exist in this world. For example websites, applications, operating systems, and other technological devices.

However, the many choices of programming languages ​​actually confuse those who want to learn. So do not be surprised, if many are discouraged from learning programming languages.

Fortunately, in this article, you will understand what a programming language is and its functions and types. You will also become acquainted with various examples of programming languages ​​plus their specific uses.

Curious right? Read this article to the end, yes!

What is a Programming Language?

what is a programming language

A programming language is a language used by programmers to communicate with computers. Programming languages ​​are composed of several syntaxes that form certain commands.

Later, the command will be translated into the logic that the computer understands. So, the computer can carry out tasks according to the instructions given by the programmer earlier. Therefore, it is not surprising that programming languages ​​are also often referred to as computer languages.

The end result of using a programming language is an operating system, desktop application, website, mobile application, and even various technological devices that you usually operate daily.

Wow, it turns out that programming languages ​​play an important role in the rapid development of technology today, huh? In the next point, you will learn in more detail about programming language functions. Let’s see!

What is the Function of a Programming Language?

In general, there are two programming language functions that you must know, including:

1. Media of Communication between Programmers and Computers

The first function of a programming language is as a communication bridge between a programmer and a computer. This is in accordance with the function of the language itself, which is a communication tool understood by the speaker.

Unfortunately, the language that computers understand is different from human language. Therefore, the programming language commands written by the programmer must be translated first, so that the computer can understand them.

To translate a programming language into a computer language, there are two commonly used methods, namely:

Metode Compiler

Compilers are tools for scanning all programming language commands and then converting them into a new package file. Well, this file package contains machine code that can be read by a computer or other device.

the compiler is

Then, the computer can execute programming language commands whenever the user runs the package file. Oh yes, the extension of this file package can be different, according to the device that will run the program.

For example, .EXE for Windows-based devices, .APK for Android, or.APP for iOS. Meanwhile, the programming languages ​​recorded using the compiler include C, C++, C#, Java, Kotlin, and Swift.

Metode Interpreter

Interpreters are tools for converting programming language commands into machine code, without generating new package files. You do this by translating the command line by line when the program is run.

the interpreter is

Examples of tools commonly used as interpreters are web browsers. Therefore, Interpreter is often used by specialist website programming languages, such as JavaScript, Ruby, and PHP.

2. Tools for Developing Systems and Programs

The function of the two programming languages ​​is as a tool for developing systems and programs. The way it works, the programmer will write program code ( coding ) which is then converted into machine code.

programming language functions make systems

The end result of that machine code is the millions of operating systems, websites, games, and applications that exist today. In fact, your device labelled ‘smart’ can also function because of the program code in it.

By now, you have understood what a programming language is and its functions. In the next section, we invite you to know more about the types of programming languages.

What are the Types of Programming Languages?

Based on the level of proximity to computer logic, programming languages ​​are divided into three types. What are those?

1. Low-Level Programming Language

Low-level languages ​​are the types of programming languages ​​that are most closely related to computer logic. This type of language can be run on a computer without needing to be translated first with a compiler or interpreter.

Well, low-level programming languages ​​are further divided into two, namely:

Machine Language

Machine language is the native language that computers understand. This language is also known as machine code or object code. Generally, machine language is displayed in binary code (0 and 1).

type of machine programming language

Therefore, machine language tends to be difficult for humans to understand. But on the positive side, programs written in machine language have a very agile performance, because they don’t need to be translated anymore.

Oh yes, machine language is also the end result of the high-level language translation process carried out by the compiler or interpreter.

Assembly Language

Assembly language or assembly language is a type of low-level language for building systems that deal directly with the hardware. For example, to create an operating system or driver.

assembly language types

Assembly language uses mnemonics, or abbreviations of words in English, to form certain commands. Therefore, this language needs to be converted into machine language again.

Well, this translation process is carried out by a tool called Assembler. Although it must be translated first, the performance of the Assembly language program is fairly fast. Because it does not require a lot of memory when run.

2. Intermediate Programming Language

Mid-level language is a type of programming language that is a link between low-level languages ​​and high-level languages. Hence, this language is often called a pseudo-language or pseudo-language.

As a connecting language, middle-level languages ​​use commands that are close to human language, so they are easy to understand. On the other hand, the complexity is quite high, approaching assembly language.

Therefore, middle-level languages ​​are also often used to build operating systems. In fact, it is commonly used to create programs that can manage other programs, such as Terminal.

Well, some examples of middle-level languages ​​include C, C ++, and C#.

3. High-Level Programming Language

A high-level language is a type of programming language with commands that resemble human language. In other words, the commands are very easy to write, read, and manage for advanced purposes.

Also Read:  7 New Programming Languages ​​You Should Know

Therefore, high-level languages ​​are highly recommended for those of you who are just learning to program. Given, that the level of difficulty is relatively lower than the two types of languages ​​previously mentioned.

Apart from that, high-level languages ​​are often used to build websites and applications. In fact, almost all websites and applications that you install are made using a high-level language.

As already discussed, high-level languages ​​need to be translated first into machine code. But fortunately, every language has included its own Compiler or Interpreter, so it’s convenient to use.

Well, high-level languages ​​are still further divided into two types, namely:

Procedural Oriented Programming

Procedural-oriented programming is a type of programming language that divides program commands into smaller parts. Later, these sections will be sorted systematically.

If already, the computer will execute the command in accordance with the order that has been set.

types of procedurally oriented programming languages

The advantage, programmers will more easily understand the flow of the program. The downside, however, is that it’s more difficult to modify one part of the program without affecting the rest.

Well, examples of procedural-oriented programming languages ​​are Pascal, Basic, and FORTRAN.

Object-Oriented Programming (Object Oriented Programming)

Object-oriented programming is a type of programming language that manages program commands into specific objects. Well, each object will have its own characteristics.

Then, the computer will execute the given command according to the characteristics of each object.

type of object-oriented programming language

The advantage of object-oriented programming is that it is easy to modify, without causing errors in other parts of the program. The drawback is that the program is more difficult to understand the flow.

Examples of object-oriented programming languages ​​include Java, PHP, Python, and Ruby.

After knowing what a programming language is, its functions, and its types, now we invite you to get to know some examples of programming languages. Let’s see together!

15+ Examples of Programming Languages ​​You Need to Know

All systems and programs that exist today are created by programming languages. Therefore, you need to know some of them. Well, 15+ examples of programming languages ​​are as follows:

  1. JavaScript
  2. Python
  3. SQL
  4. Java
  5. TypeScript
  6. C#
  7. C++
  8. PHP
  9. C
  10. Go
  11. Kotlin
  12. Ruby
  13. Dart
  14. Swift
  15. R
  16. HTML
  17. CSS

Let’s go straight to the first programming language example!

1. JavaScript

programming language is javascript

JavaScript is a programming language used to develop websites from the client-side. JavaScript is one of the oldest languages ​​in the world because it has been in development since 1995.

JavaScript allows programmers to add complex features to make web pages more dynamic and interactive. For example, to create pop up notifications, confirmation messages, and even simple games on web pages.

In fact, JavaScript’s capabilities are further enhanced thanks to Node.js, a runtime environment. So, JavaScript is now not only used to build dynamic websites. It is also used in server development, mobile applications, graphic animation, games, and much more.

The advantages of the JavaScript programming language:

  • Make the website more dynamic, while adding new features on the website.
  • Shorten the loading time of web pages from the server.
  • Allows being used in conjunction with other languages.
  • It is a programming language that is very easy for beginners to understand and learn.
  • Able to develop a solid system because of its wide and flexible ecosystem.

Missing JavaScript programming language:

  • Pure JavaScript cannot run outside the browser.
  • JavaScript commands tend to be less secure than other programming languages.
  • An ecosystem that is too broad has the potential to confuse novice programmers.

2. Python

programming language is python

Python is a popular open-source programming language that is quite easy for beginners to understand. Just like JavaScript, Python has been around since the 90s, to be precise in 1991.

Python language is often referred to as a multipurpose language because it can be used for various types of systems. But mostly, Python is used to build Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, and Robotics.

The advantages of the Python programming language:

  • Python commands are very easy to understand, read, and write.
  • Able to integrate with other programming languages, such as C, C++, and Java.
  • Python executes its commands line by line, so programmers can find errors more easily.
  • Python commands can be run on various platforms without being constrained by compatibility issues, the term is Write Once Run Anywhere.

Disadvantages of Python programming language:

  • Python commands are translated by the Interpreter, so they don’t perform as well as languages ​​that use Compilers.
  • The interpreter also makes Python less suitable for building mobile applications or games.

3. SQL

what is sql programming language

SQL is a programming language that is useful for accessing, managing, and manipulating relational-based data. SQL was first developed by IBM in 1974.

As a data-only programming language, it is very useful in defining data structures and their flow in a program. Without SQL, program data cannot be processed optimally.

Therefore, SQL is widely used to build a database management system (DBMS) for applications with any platform.

SQL programming language advantages:

  • Very fast data processing performance, less than seconds.
  • SQL commands are most similar to human language, so they are easy to learn.
  • A guaranteed ecosystem, because it has existed since the decade of the 70s.
  • Compatible with various platforms and other programming languages.

Disadvantages of SQL programming language:

  • Although the commands are easy to understand, the SQL interface itself is quite complex so it is not user-friendly.
  • Limited capabilities, only useful for managing data.
  • Cannot stand alone, must be used with other programming languages ​​if you want to build a complete system.

4. Java

programming language is java

Java is a multi-platform programming language with stable performance and guaranteed security. Just like JavaScript and Python, Java is also a veteran because it was first launched in 1995.

Given its security, Java is widely used to build banking, retail, and government information systems. In addition, Java is widely used in the development of mobile and desktop applications.

Advantages of the Java programming language:

  • Java commands are quite easy to understand, write, and fix when an error occurs.
  • Java programs can be converted and run on multiple platforms.
  • The end result of Java commands is pure machine code, so they are safer from possible intruders.
  • Able to run several different commands at the same time.

Disadvantages of the Java programming language:

  • Java commands tend to be convoluted, aka it takes several lines of code to write one simple command.
  • This large number of lines of code makes Java programs take up a lot of memory when running.
  • Java does not provide backup facilities by default.

5. TypeScript

what is typescript programming language

TypeScript is an open-source programming language built on top of JavaScript. Many say, the new language introduced in 2012 is a superset of JavaScript.

Also Read:  7 New Programming Languages ​​You Should Know

That is, JavaScript commands can be used in TypeScript, and vice versa. Even so, TypeScript still brings changes and new features. For example strict typing rules and automatic typing suggestions (Autocomplete).

As a superset language, what is done in JavaScript can also be done in TypeScript. In other words, it can be used for website development, front end, back end, and mobile applications.

The advantages of the TypeScript programming language:

  • Minimizes errors when coding, due to strict typing rules.
  • Can be used on various platforms, because it still utilizes the JavaScript ecosystem.
  • Easy to understand for those of you who have mastered JavaScript before.
  • Can be used with other programming languages.

Disadvantages of programming languages:

  • Lines of code tend to overflow, due to rigid writing rules.
  • The community isn’t that big, because it’s not as popular as JavaScript yet.
  • In some cases, it requires a Compiler, while JavaScript doesn’t at all.

6. C#

programming language is c#

C# (pronounced C sharp) is a modern object-oriented programming language. This language utilizes XML -based web services and runs on Microsoft’s .NET platform.

C# is a language for general development needs. However, it is widely used to build Web-based applications. This language is a bit difficult to learn, so it is not suitable for those of you who are still beginners.

Advantages of the C# programming language:

  • The C# language is highly compatible with the Windows ecosystem, as it leverages the .NET platform.
  • C# is more modern than C and C++, so it’s easier to maintain.
  • Unlike Java, C++ provides backup facilities to prevent memory leaks.

Disadvantages of C# programming language:

  • Dependency with .NET platforms, making it less flexible for other platforms.
  • The C# language uses a combination of commands from other languages ​​such as C and Java, so it tends to be difficult to learn.

7. C++

An example of a programming language is C++

Another example of a programming language is C++. This intermediate-level language was first developed in 1980 by a computer expert named Bjarne Stroustrup.

This improved language of the C language has features of a high-level language. Call it an object-oriented approach, error handling, and typing suggestions (Autocomplete). Well, it is most suitable for building desktop-based applications.

Advantages of the C++ programming language:

  • The C++ language supports a compact and portable programming structure.
  • Supports some of the typical capabilities of object-oriented programmings, such as abstraction, inheritance, and encapsulation.
  • C++ commands are easy to understand like high-level languages but can be used to build complex systems like low-level languages.
  • More compatible with multiple platforms than the C language.

Disadvantages of C++ programming language:

  • C++ is still less secure than other languages ​​like Python, let alone Java.
  • Does not support the Garbage Collection feature (object deletion without command declaration), so it consumes more memory.
  • Can be used to build web-based applications, but the debugging process is not as easy as desktop applications.

8. PHP

programming language is php

The PHP programming language is one of the most popular programming languages ​​today. PHP language is also considered a veteran, because it has been developed since 1994, by Rasmus Laird.

This language is very compatible and is commonly used with other languages ​​such as JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and even SQL. Well, PHP is most often used to build websites and web-based applications.

The advantages of the PHP programming language:

  • The PHP language is very easy for beginners to learn, and the commands are relatively safe.
  • Its capabilities can be increased by installing additional PHP libraries, modules, and frameworks.
  • Can run on various operating systems, say Windows, Mac, Linux, or Android.
  • Compatible with various Cloud services, such as Amazon Web Services.

Disadvantages of PHP programming language:

  • Not yet tested its ability to build systems other than web-based.
  • Performance is not very stable when forced to manage large-scale applications.
  • Must be paired with other programming languages ​​so that the final system results are more optimal.

9. C

an example of a programming language is c

The next example of a programming language is the C language. This language is also a veteran because it has been developed since 1972 by Dennis M Ritchie of the AT&T company.

Well, C language is classified as a middle-level language that combines the convenience of high-level languages ​​and low-level language abilities. It is widely used to build operating systems, text editors, drivers, and compilers.

Advantages of the C programming language:

  • As a mid-level language, C commands are still quite easy to understand.
  • The C language is known for its fast, efficient, and robust performance.
  • Reliable for building programs with complex calculations.
  • There is a dynamic memory allocation feature, so the performance is fairly stable.

Disadvantages of C programming language:

  • The error handling method is not good, so it’s a bit difficult to find typing errors in commands.
  • Does not support reusability, so programmers have to write the same code over and over again.

10. Go

go is

Go or Golang is an open-source programming language translated by the Compiler. This language was introduced in 2009 by the world’s technology giant, Google.

This language combines some of the advantages of other languages, such as the fast performance of the C language and the convenience of JavaScript and Python. The Go language is widely used to build servers and large-scale applications.

Advantages of the Go programming language:

  • The Go language is quite easy to understand and learn for beginners.
  • Already provides built-in tools for the application testing process.
  • The performance is fairly fast because it uses a compiler.

Disadvantages of Go programming language:

  • Does not yet support a qualified error handling method.
  • Still not popular, the number of communities is also not much.
  • An ecosystem that still needs time to develop.

11. Kotlin

kotlin is

Another example of a programming language is Kotlin. Kotlin is a multiplatform and open-source language that was developed by the company JetBrains in 2011.

Despite being multi-platform, Kotlin is best suited for building Android applications. The reason is, that Kotlin is officially supported by Google as the language of instruction for Android development.

The advantages of the Kotlin programming language:

  • Kotlin language commands tend to be concise, which can save lines of code.
  • Official Google support for continuous feature development, performance improvement, and system security.
  • Program commands are safer from possible errors, because of coding rules that require variable declarations at the beginning.
  • Can be used with Java to develop the same application.

Disadvantages of the Kotlin programming language:

  • Compile process speed which tends to be unstable.
  • The Kotlin community of programmers is still minimal.
  • Kotlin’s ability to build apps on platforms other than Android has yet to be tested. 

12. Ruby

ruby is

Ruby is an example of an open-source programming language that uses an object-oriented approach. This language was introduced to the public in 1993.

Initially, Ruby was only suitable for building desktop-based applications. However, since the presence of a framework called Ruby on Rails, it can now be relied on to build websites, both from the front end and back end.

Also Read:  7 New Programming Languages ​​You Should Know

The advantages of the Ruby programming language:

  • As a veteran language, Ruby is highly compatible with various GUI-based tools, such as GTK and OpenGL.
  • Flexible enough, reliable to build desktop and web-based applications.
  • Ruby commands tend to be simple, so they can summarize the resulting lines of code.

Disadvantages of Ruby programming language:

  • Performance tends to be slow compared to other programming languages.
  • Pure Ruby language capabilities are somewhat limited, only suitable for building desktop applications.
  • Must be used with the Rails framework in order to develop web-based applications.
  • Not suitable for beginner programmers, because they have to learn Ruby and Rails at the same time.

13. Dart

darts are

It turns out that Go is not the only language developed by Google. There is yet another programming language under the auspices of the tech giant, namely Dart which was released in 2011

Dart is the official language for using a free UI toolkit called Flutter. The combination of the two can be used to develop applications based on Android, iOS, and the web with the same program commands.

The advantages of the Dart programming language:

  • Program commands are similar to JavaScript, so they are easy to learn for those who have already mastered JavaScript.
  • Performance tends to be more agile, compared to JavaScript.
  • The documentation is fairly complete, so it doesn’t make it difficult for novice programmers.

Disadvantages of the Dart programming language:

  • Must be paired with Flutter, aka cannot be used with other tools.
  • Still not very popular, directly proportional to the minimal community.
  • Still in the process of development, so the current documentation may change again.

14. Swift

swift is

If Kotlin is the language of instruction for Android, then Swift is the language of instruction for iOS. This language was developed exclusively by Apple in 2014.

Similar to Dart, Swift has to be coupled with a UI toolkit called Xcode. The difference is, that Xcode is paid and can only be installed on Apple-made devices.

So predictably, the Swift programming language is specifically used on Apple devices, to develop Apple-based applications as well, such as iOS and Mac OS.

Swift programming language advantages:

  • Official support from Apple for ecosystem development.
  • Pretty easy to understand for novice programmers.
  • Its performance is claimed to be very fast compared to other programming languages.

Disadvantages of Swift programming language:

  • Must be paired with Xcode, can’t stand alone.
  • Swift is open source, but Xcode itself is paid, which makes it difficult for some programmers.
  • Must have an Apple device to learn Swift programming.

15. R

language r is

Another example of a programming language is the R language. This language, which is considered the gateway to data science, was first developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman.

In contrast to other programming languages ​​used to build systems, the R language is more likely to be used for data processing and analysis. In addition, R is also reliable for statistical and machine learning needs.

Advantages of the R programming language:

  • The most appropriate programming language for data science and analysis needs.
  • Able to process and display various data visualizations as needed.
  • Friendly commands and interface for novice programmers.
  • It can run on various platforms such as Windows, Linux, and Mac.

Disadvantages of R programming language:

  • The R language still does not support three-dimensional graphical modelling.
  • Performance is not as fast as in other programming languages.

16. [Bonus] HTML

html is

HTML is not actually a programming language. HTML is a markup language, which is useful for managing the structure of a website. Well, HTML has been introduced in 1991.

With HTML, you can freely adjust the layout of the web page and all its display elements. Only after that, you can add other programming languages ​​to your websites, such as JavaScript or PHP.

You could say, HTML is the framework of a website page. So you could say, HTML must exist in all types of websites. Be it static, dynamic or web-based application.

Advantages of the HTML programming language:

  • Very easy to understand for beginners.
  • Can be used with any programming language.
  • Able to adjust the layout of website pages to the smallest elements.
  • Can be designed without the need to install any software, let alone modify the system.

Lack of HTML programming language:

  • The original look of a pure HTML website is very unattractive.
  • Must be used with other languages, so that the appearance and features are more powerful.
  • The command is not simple, there is often repetition of code in various parts of the website.
  • There is no error handling feature available, so programmers have to scan for errors manually.

17. [Bonus] CSS

css is

Just like HTML, CSS is not part of any programming language. CSS is a design language for beautifying web pages. With CSS, the framework of HTML web pages can be transformed to be more attractive.

You do this by setting the background type, changing the text colour, changing the font type, and much more. Like HTML, CSS is also the foundation of web pages. Hence, it is found on many types of websites.

The advantages of the CSS programming language:

  • Simplify the process of designing web pages.
  • One CSS file can be used on many pages, so the website looks more consistent.
  • Speed ​​up website loading time.
  • The ecosystem is fairly broad, there are various kinds of frameworks available.

Disadvantages of CSS programming language:

  • Similar to HTML, CSS does not provide error handling features, making it a bit difficult for beginners.
  • Excessive use of CSS can cause the size of the website to swell, so it must be minimized.
  • Sometimes CSS compatibility issues arise in some browsers, which causes the appearance of the website to change.

Which Programming Language Do You Want To Learn?

In this article, you have learned what a programming language is, its functions, and some of its types. You have also become acquainted with examples of programming languages, complete with the advantages, disadvantages, and uses of each.

For those of you who want to be a programmer, you can choose a programming language to learn. What is clear, choose a language that suits your interests and application development goals.

One more thing to remember, the programming world is vast and its development is fairly fast. Therefore, you must always follow the latest trends in the programming world.

One way is to regularly read programming articles on the Xanderblog. To make it even more complete, don’t forget to click the Subscribe button below so you don’t miss our programming article updates. See you again!

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Xander
I am Omotunmihse Temitope (Xander), A Contents Writer, Web and Graphic designer, and A pro blogger who has a passion for blogging and has taken blogging as part of my daily activities.